Maven is the Next Big Thing in Java build management. Its goals and philosophy are pretty far from Ant, which in all honesty is a step in the right direction. Ant scales poorly, uses some ridiculous syntax, and becomes harder to understand the more you try to do with it. For slapping together a simple .war or .jar, it works fine. For controlling a vast array of slightly differing builds in an intelligent and maintainable way... well, let's just not mention that.
Maven has caught on among the Movers and Shakers for one reason only: dependency management. Maven has "repositories" which store version information for "artifacts" (fancy name for jars). You specify what version of something you want, and it does the Right AND Intelligent Thing: downloads it to a well-defined and organized location, automatically sets up classpaths, and makes it available for other Maven builds. This: 1) flat-out rocks; 2) solves one of the biggest problems with making Ant scaleable; 3) makes version conflicts a manageable problem instead of a hair-pulling fit of frustration. "Dammit, I said commons-lang 2.1, not 2.2! Users couldn't download jars properly if it guaranteed them a second life as Jessica Alba's Barcalounger!" Such days are now but a painful memory.
Unfortunately, they just HAD to go and cover this juicy nugget of awesome with a ponderous load of wtf. The pom.xml file, which is to Maven as build.xml is to Ant, is stunningly complex. It's true that you can get a lot more mileage out of a lot less XML in the simplest case, but that assumes you've laid out everything in your project according to the Maven "standard directory layout" -- and don't ask, because you haven't. "No problem, I'll just specify the location of everything!" Sure, do that. But even if you can figure it out without any documentation (of which more later), your nice, cute, simple POM just doubled or tripled in size. Worse, it now looks slightly familiar... I know, it's that huge list of Ant properties that every medium-to-large project has which has nothing in common with the similar list from any other medium-to-large project!
So if I want to use Maven, my first option is to move everything relating to my project into an arbitrary directory structure, thus:
- screwing up my working Ant scripts, thus requiring me to rewrite them;
- screwing me on all the
taskdefs I'm using that have no corresponding Maven plugin;
- giving me yet another moving-crap-around-subversion headache;
- randomly hosing other useful things like the build machine's triggers, my cool Ruby code coverage scripts I'm prototyping, or proprietary analyzers that the Manager insists we waste otherwise useful CPU time on;
- hope that the next version of Maven doesn't change its mind about what the arbitrary directory structure should be (like v2 did with v1), or I'll have to repeat this entire process.
This is progress?
Recently I migrated a little Java library project of mine to Maven 2 from Ant in order to learn how it worked. I had a simple 150-line Ant script that compiled, ran tests, created javadocs, checked versions, and threw the whole mess into a neatly packaged jar with a bowtie on top. I'm not that retarded, I like to think, but the conversion took around 8 hours, and we're talking about maybe 75 classes in two packages with one external dependency. Now I have a 200-line POM that does the same thing in a completely different way, and it's only that short because I bit the bullet and converted to The One True Project Organization. Why would I try this on a big important project on which screwups or delays might mean my job?
One last item on the rant parade: documentation. Maven 2's is pathetic, and Maven 1, which is well near abandoned only two years after a huge effort to convert people to it, is only slightly better. Tons of important docs on the live site are still "coming soon", and the plugin documentation is long on parameters and short on examples. I don't care how to use esoteric feature X of weird tool Y. I just want a drop-in for doing javadocs and creating shippable packages. This shouldn't be hard to do, and once you figure it out, it really isn't, but no way should I be forced to spend valuable time ferreting out the solution myself through trial-and-error. (No, mailing lists and bug reports are not the answer. I should NEVER have to Ask The Expert When Simple Things Break.) Please, Maven guys, think about the users here.
There is a bit of good news. Maven 2 comes with some Ant tasks that allow you to do Maven-ish things from Ant, including dependency resolution. My shiny new Ant script (after the Conversion) downloads one small jar of Maven tasks, feeds a few simple bits of info on package name and version number, and the whole shebang gets downloaded right then and there and built in one go without needing to restart the build. And if the user ever wants to try the Maven build, it will reuse the previously downloaded dependencies without a single tag of additional configuration. Freaking awesome. Groin-grabbingly transcendent. The Real Build Solution, when it comes, will work in all respects as this little combination does.